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After an implant has been inserted into the bone, the prosthetic phase follows, when the dental crown is made. This phase begins 4-6 months after the surgical implant insertion phase; during this period, the implants becomes fixated into the bone (osteointegration).
Prosthetic works on implants must meet the patient’s aesthetic requirements and functional needs, must provide a balanced distribution of the masticatory forces and prevent the building of traumatic forces, reducing the longevity of the implant.
A dental work supported by an implant has 3 components:
The implant – which is inserted into the bone through a surgical intervention
The prosthetic abutment – is similar to a polished teeth. Can be pre-manufactured (standard) or customized (manufactured individually for each patient, in specialized milling centers)
Dental crown – made of ceramic on metal or zirconium support
Depending on how the crown is attached to the prosthetic abutment, the works are:
1. Screwed-in works – the crown and the abutment make up a unit that is attached to the bone implant through screwing. The orifice that remains in the crown is covered with obturation composite material. When needed, it can be unscrewed, to reach the implant.
2. Cemented works – they look the same as works done to natural teeth, a cement is used, attaching the crown to the prosthetic abutment. Usually, a temporary special cement for implants is used, which allows the removal of the work when needed. (see the last 2 photos, implants with abutments)
3. Removable works on implants – are detachable prostheses that are attached to implants through special anchoring systems: snap-in, sliding systems, etc. These increase the stability and maintaining of prosthesis and the patient’s comfort is better.